Overview: Zimbabwe


Urban: 32.2% of total Population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 2.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Population growth: 1.56% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)

Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority Languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)

Protestant 74.8% (includes Apostolic 37.5%, Pentecostal 21.8%, other 15.5%), Roman Catholic 7.3%, other Christian 5.3%, traditional 1.5%, Muslim 0.5%, other 0.1%, none 10.5% (2015 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.9% (male 2,658,563/female 2,711,017); 15-24 years: 20.47% (male 1,383,337/female 1,442,738); 25-54 years: 31.9% (male 2,207,012/female 2,196,996); 55-64 years: 4.27% (male 233,771/female 355,738); 65 years and over: 4.46% (male 251,968/female 363,944) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 79.5; youth dependency ratio: 74.4; elderly dependency ratio: 5.1; and potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 9,476 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: undetermined (political violence, violence in association with the 2008 election, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2015)

Area: total: 390,757 sq km; land: 386,847 sq km; water: 3,910 sq km

Irrigated land: 1,740 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.08 physicians/1,000 Population (2014)

Health expenditure: 6.4% of GDP (2014)

Education expenditure: 8.4% of GDP (2014)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write English; and total population: 86.5%; Male: 88.5%; and female: 84.6% (2015 est.)

Government type
Semi-presidential Republic

Administrative divisions
8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands)

History: latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013, effective 22 May 2013

Amendments: passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of Parliament and assent by the president of the republic; amendments to constitutional chapters on fundamental human rights and freedoms and on agricultural lands also require approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum

Legal system
Mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies – 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces – by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: Senate – last held for elected member on 30 July 2018 (next to be held in 2023) National Assembly – last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ZANU-PF 34, MDC Alliance 25, Chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2, MDC-T 1
National Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ZANU-PF 170, MDC Alliance 85, MDC-T 1, NPF 1, independent 1

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 28 December 2017

Head of government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 28 December 2017

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to National Assembly

Elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits

Election results: Emmerson MNANGAGWA reelected president in 1st round of voting; percent of vote – Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) 50.8%, Nelson CHAMISA (MDC-T) 44.3%, Thokozani KHUP (MDC-N) .9%, other 3%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president

Subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; Administrative Court; regional magistrate courts; customary law courts; special courts

Exports commodities
Platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing

Exports partners
South Africa 50.3%, Mozambique 22.5%, UAE 9.8%, Zambia 4.9% (2017)

Imports commodities
machinery and transport equipment, other manufacturers, chemicals, fuels, food products

Imports partners
South Africa 47.8%, Zambia 20.5% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 8,500,000
Electrification – total population: 40%)
Electrification – urban areas: 80%)
Electrification – rural areas: 21% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 3,363,256; and percent of population: 23.1% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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