Overview: Zambia

Population
15,972,001

Urban: 43.5% of total Population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Population growth: 2.93% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages
Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%)

Religions
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha’i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.03% (male 3,693,255/female 3,657,890); 15-24 years: 20% (male 1,595,628/female 1,598,065); 25-54 years: 28.72% (male 2,310,961/female 2,276,018); 55-64 years: 2.93% (male 217,954/female 250,134); 65 years and over: 2.33% (male 162,605/female 209,490) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 91.9; youth dependency ratio: 87.1; elderly dependency ratio: 4.8; and potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): 41,888 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 5,000 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

Area: total: 752,618 sq km; land: 743,398 sq km; water: 9,220 sq km

Irrigated land: 1,560 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.09 physicians/1,000 Population (2016)

Health expenditure: 5% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 85.6% of population; Rural: 51.3% of population; and Total: 65.4% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 14.4% of population; Rural: 48.7% of population; and Total: 34.6% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 1.1% of GDP (2008

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write English; and total population: 63.4%; Male: 70.9%; and female: 56% (2015 est.)

Government type
Presidential Republic

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western)

Constitution
History: latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991

Amendments: passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one-half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, last in 2016 (2017)

Legal system
Mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
Citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021

Election results: percent of vote by party – PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party – PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015

Head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly

Elections/appointments: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021

Election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president in the first round; percent of vote – Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justice, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65

Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts 3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved

Exports commodities
Copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton

Exports partners
Switzerland 44.8%, China 16.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.2%, Singapore 6%, South Africa 5.9% (2017)

Imports commodities
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing

Imports partners
South Africa 28.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.8%, China 12.9%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 10,700,000
Electrification – total population: 26%)
Electrification – urban areas: 45%)
Electrification – rural areas: 14% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 3,956,252; and percent of population: 25.5% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook