Overview: Uganda

Population
39,570,125

Urban: 23.8% of total Population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Population growth: 3.2% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)

Languages
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic

Religions
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.05% (male 9,486,324/female 9,526,713); 15-24 years: 21.1% (male 4,130,357/female 4,217,681); 25-54 years: 26.3% (male 5,208,817/female 5,199,556); 55-64 years: 2.57% (male 491,397/female 525,064); 65 years and over: 1.98% (male 343,805/female 440,411) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 101.6; youth dependency ratio: 97.2; elderly dependency ratio: 4.4; and potential support ratio: 22.8 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 1,065,094 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 316,968 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 40,765 (Burundi) (refugee and asylum seekers); 37,193 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 15,266 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 24,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord’s Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; inter-communal violence and cattle raids) (2017)

Area: total: 241,038 sq km; land: 197,100 sq km; water: 43,938 sq km

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.09 physicians/1,000 Population (2015)

Health expenditure: 7.2% of GDP (2014)

Education expenditure: 2.3% of GDP (2014)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 78.4%; Male: 85.3%; and female: 71.5% (2015 est.)

Government type
Presidential Republic

Administrative divisions: 121 districts and 1 capital city

Constitution
History: latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995

Amendments: passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership in the second and third readings; proposals affecting “entrenched clauses” including the sovereignty of the people, supremacy of the constitution, human rights and freedoms, the democratic and multiparty form of government, presidential term of office, independence of the judiciary, and the institutions of traditional or cultural leaders

Legal system
Mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (445 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 25 “representatives” reserved for special interest groups – army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; up to 18 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021

Election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NRM 292, FDC 37, DP 14, Uganda People’s Defense Force 10, UPC 6, independent 66 (excludes 19 ex-officio members

Executive branch
Head of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011

Head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021

Election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote – Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices

Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (an 8-member independent advisory body) and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts; local council courts; family and children courts

Exports commodities
Coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

Exports partners
Kenya 17.7%, UAE 16.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.6%, Rwanda 6.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)

Imports commodities
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals

Imports partners
China 17.4%, India 13.4%, UAE 12.2%, Kenya 7.9%, Japan 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Indonesia 4.4%, South Africa 4.1% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 32,100,000
Electrification – total population: 22%)
Electrification – urban areas: 55%)
Electrification – rural areas: 10% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 18,148,923; and percent of population: 45.9%)

Source: CIA World Factbook