Overview: Tanzania


Urban: 33.8% of total Population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 5.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Population growth: 2.75% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
mainland – African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar – Arab, African, mixed Arab and African

Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages

Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.74% (male 11,921,393/female 11,678,536); 15-24 years: 19.86% (male 5,361,747/female 5,351,794); 25-54 years: 29.88% (male 8,098,183/female 8,020,289); 55-64 years: 3.51% (male 836,313/female 1,055,347); 65 years and over: 3.02% (male 687,118/female 940,215) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 93.4; youth dependency ratio: 87.4; elderly dependency ratio: 6; and potential support ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 227,510 (Burundi); 84,262 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2018)

Area: total: 947,300 sq km; land: 885,800 sq km; water: 61,500 sq km

Irrigated land: 1,840 sq km (2012)

Health expenditure: 5.6% of GDP (2014)

Education expenditure: 3.5% of GDP (2014)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic; and total population: 77.9%; Male: 83.2%; and female: 73.1% (2015 est.)

Government type
Presidential Republic

Administrative divisions
31 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Songwe, Tabora, Tanga)

Independence Day
26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK

History: latest adopted 25 April 1977

Amendments: passage of amendments to constitutional articles including those on sovereignty of the United Republic, the authorities and powers of the government, the president, the Assembly, and the High Court requires two-thirds majority vote of the mainland Assembly membership and of the Zanzibar House of Representatives membership; House of Representatives approval of other amendments is not required (2017)

Legal system
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (393 seats; 264 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 113 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term

Elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election either October 2020 or March 2021

Election results: National Assembly – percent of vote by party – CCM 55%, Chadema 31.8%, CUF 8.6%, other 2.2%; seats by party – CCM 253, Chadema 70%, CUF 42%, other 2

Executive branch
Chief of state: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015

Head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

Elections/appointments: election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote – John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices

Judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president

Subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts

Exports commodities
Gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton

Exports partners
India 21.8%, South Africa 17.9%, Kenya 8.8%, Switzerland 6.7%, Belgium 5.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5.8%, China 4.8% (2017)

Imports commodities
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil

Imports partners
India 16.5%, China 15.8%, UAE 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 7.9%, South Africa 5.1%, Japan 4.9%, Switzerland 4.4% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 37,400,000
Electrification – total population: 24%)
Electrification – urban areas: 71%)
Electrification – rural areas: 4% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 6,822,754; and percent of population: 13.0% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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