Overview: Sudan

Population
37,345,935 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 34.6% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 1.64% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata

Languages
Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur

Religions
Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.68% (male 7,335,613/female 7,111,552); 15-24 years: 21.04% (male 4,033,787/female 3,823,098); 25-54 years: 32.77% (male 5,943,906/female 6,293,921); 55-64 years: 4.24% (male 824,577/female 760,014); 65 years and over: 3.27% (male 655,795/female 563,672) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 81.6; youth dependency ratio: 75.4; elderly dependency ratio: 6.3; and potential support ratio: 15.9 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 103,176 (Eritrea); 8,502 (Chad); 6,997 (Syria) (2016); 761,331 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 2.072 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2017)

Area: total: 1,861,484 sq. km; land: NA; water: NA

Irrigated land: 18,900 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
3.06 physicians/1,000 Population (2014)

Health expenditure: 8.4% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 66% of population; Rural: 50.2% of population; and Total: 55.5% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 34% of population; Rural: 49.8% of population; and Total: 44.5% of Population (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases: Degree of risk: very high; Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever; and water contact disease: schistosomiasis; Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis; Animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Education expenditure: 2.2% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 75.9%; Male: 83.3%; and female: 68.6% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 20%; Male: 16%; and female: 32% (2009 est.)

Government type
Presidential Republic

Administrative divisions
18 states (wilayat, singular – wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile)

Independence Day
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK

Constitution
History: several previous; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution

Amendments: passage requires submission of the proposal to the Legislature at least two months prior to consideration, approval by at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses of the Legislature, and assent by the president; amended 2015 (2017)

Legal system
Mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral National Legislature consists of:
Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected – 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms

Elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021
election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013); Second Vice President Osman Yousif KIBIR (since 9 September 2018); Prime Minister Mutaz MUSA Abdullah Salim (since 9 September 2018

Head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013); Second Vice President Osman Yousif KIBIR (since 9 September 2018); Prime Minister Mutaz MUSA Abdullah Salim (since 9 September 2018

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote – Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president

Judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials

Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts

Exports commodities
gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar

Exports partners
UAE 55.5%, Egypt 14.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.8% (2017)

Imports commodities
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat

Imports partners
UAE 12.7%, Egypt 10.6%, India 10.5%, Turkey 10.2%, Japan 7.6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Germany 4.6% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 24,700,000
Electrification – total population: 35%)
Electrification – urban areas: 63%)
Electrification – rural areas: 21% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 10,284,260; and percent of population: 28.0% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook