Overview: Somalia


Urban: 45% of total Population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Population growth: 2% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs

Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English

Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.15% (male 2,376,526/female 2,383,060); 15-24 years: 19.04% (male 1,059,608/female 1,040,343); 25-54 years: 31.43% (male 1,795,355/female 1,671,421); 55-64 years: 4.2% (male 230,027/female 233,257); 65 years and over: 2.19% (male 93,736/female 148,053) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 97.4; youth dependency ratio: 92.1; elderly dependency ratio: 5.3; and potential support ratio: 18.8 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 18,971 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 11,491 (Yemen) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 2.1 million (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government’s allied forces) (2018)

Area: Total: 637,657 sq km; land: 627,337 sq km; water: 10,320 sq km

Irrigated land: 2,000 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.03 physicians/1,000 Population

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 69.6% of population; Rural: 8.8% of population; and Total: 31.7% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 30.4% of population; Rural: 91.2% of population; and Total: 68.3% of Population (2015 est.)

Government type
Federal Parliamentary Republic

Administrative divisions
18 regions (plural – NA, singular – gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed)

History: latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional
Amendments: proposals require review by a joint committee of Parliament with inclusion of public comments and state legislatures’ comments

Legal system
Mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of:
Upper House (54 seats; senators indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms) House of the People (275 seats; members indirectly elected by regional delegates to serve 4-year terms

Elections: Upper House – first held 10 October 2016 (next NA) House of the People – first held 23 October – 10 November 2016 (next NA

Election results: Upper House – NA
House of the People – NA

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed “Farmaajo” (since 8 February 2017

Head of government: Prime Minister Hassan Ali KHAYRE (since 1 March 2017

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People

Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 8 February 2017 (previously scheduled for 30 September 2016 but postponed repeatedly

Election results: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed “Farmaajo” (TPP) 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 46

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge

Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body

Subordinate courts: federal courts; federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia courts

Exports commodities
livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal

Exports partners
Oman 31.7%, Saudi Arabia 18.7%, UAE 16.3%, Nigeria 5.1%, Yemen 4.8%, Pakistan 4% (2017)

Imports commodities
manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat

Imports partners
China 17.6%, India 17.2%, Ethiopia 10.5%, Oman 10.3%, Kenya 6.9%, Turkey 5.3%, Malaysia 4.1% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 8,900,000
Electrification – total population: 15%)
Electrification – urban areas: 33%)
Electrification – rural areas: 4% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 203,366; and percent of population: 1.9% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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