Overview: Republic of the Congo


Urban: 44.5% of Total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.37% (2017 EST.)

Ethnic groups
Over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes – Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) – make up about 45% of the population
French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.74% (male 17,525,063/female 17,241,929); 15-24 years: 21.46% (male 8,969,922/female 8,909,903); 25-54 years: 30.53% (male 12,691,612/female 12,738,316); 55-64 years: 3.6% (male 1,421,619/female 1,579,034); 65 years and over: 2.67% (male 941,926/female 1,281,827) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 97.5; youth dependency ratio:91.5; elderly dependency ratio:6; and potential support ratio: 16.8 (2015 est.)

Refugees (country of origin): 219,489 (Rwanda); 176,319 (Central African Republic); 93,564 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 46,500 (Burundi) (2018)

IDPs: 4.5 million (Fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; conflict in Kasai region since 2016) (2017)

Area: total: 2,344,858 sq km; land: 2,267,048 sq km; water: 77,810 sq km

Irrigated Land: 110 sq km (2012)

Health expenditure: 4.3% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 81.9% of population; Rural: 31.2% of population; and Total: 52.4% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 18.9% of population; Rural: 68.8% of population; and Total: 47.6% of Population (2015 EST.)

Education expenditure: 2.3% of GDP (2015)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba; and total population: 77%; Male: 88.5%; and female: 66.5% (2015 EST.)

Unemployment youth ages (15-24) (Total: 8.7%; Male: 8.7%; and female: 6.8% (2011 est.)

Government type
Semi-Presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 26 provinces (provinces, singular – province); Bas-Uele (Lower Uele), Equateur, Haut-Katanga (Upper Katanga), Haut-Lomami (Upper Lomami), Haut-Uele (Upper Uele), Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa)

History: Several previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006

Amendments: Proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by either house of Parliament, or by public petition; agreement on the substance of a proposed bill requires absolute majority vote in both houses; passage requires a referendum only if both houses in joint meeting fail to achieve three-fifths majority vote; constitutional articles including the form of government, universal suffrage, judicial independence, political pluralism, and personal freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal system: Civil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary, and tribal law

Citizenship by birth: No
Citizenship by descent only: At least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dual citizenship recognized: No
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: Bicameral Parliament or Parliament consists of:
Senate (108 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: Senate – last held on 19 January 2007 (follow-on election has been delayed

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, other 18, independent 26

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001

Head of government: Prime Minister Bruno TSHIBALA (since 7 April 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Henri MOVA Sankanyi (since February 2018

Cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: President directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term

Election results: Joseph KABILA reelected president; percent of vote

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges

Judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges – 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years

Subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates’ courts; customary courts

Exports commodities
Diamonds, copper, gold, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee
Exports partners
China 41.4%, Zambia 22.7%, South Korea 7.2%, Finland 6.2% (2017)

Imports commodities
Foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

Imports partners
China 19.9%, South Africa 18%, Zambia 10.4%, Belgium 9.1%, India 4.3%, Tanzania 4.2% (2017)
Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 61,400,000
Electrification – Total population: 9%)
Electrification – urban areas: 19%)
Electrification – rural areas: 2% (2013)
Electricity – production: 8,852 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 7.19 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – exports: 422 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – imports: 20 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity: 2,624 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels: 1.3% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels: 0% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants: .98.7% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources: 0% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)

Internet users : total: 3016 Million; and percent of population: 3.8% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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