Overview: Nigeria

Population
190,632,261

Urban: 50.3% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.43% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%)

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.54% (male 41,506,288/female 39,595,720); 15-24 years: 19.61% (male 19,094,899/female 18,289,513); 25-54 years: 30.74% (male 30,066,196/female 28,537,846); 55-64 years: 3.97% (male 3,699,947/female 3,870,080); 65 years and over: 3.13% (male 2,825,134/female 3,146,638) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 88.2; youth dependency ratio: 83; elderly dependency ratio: 5.1; and potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 1,926,748 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2018)

Area: Total: 923,768 sq. km; land: 910,768 sq. km; water: 13,000 sq. km

Irrigated land: 2,930 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.38 physicians/1,000 Population
2009)

Health expenditure: 3.7% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 80.8% of population; Rural: 57.3% of population; and Total: 68.5% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 19.2% of population; Rural: 42.7% of population; and Total: 31.5% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: Unknown

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 59.6%; Male: 69.2%; and female: 49.7% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 12.4%; Male: NA; and female: NA (2016 est.)

Government type: Federal presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999

Amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two-thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two-thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two-thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018 (2018)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:

Senate (109 seats – 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms

House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms

Elections:
Senate – last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 16 February 2019

House of Representatives – last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 16 February 2019

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – APC 60, PDP 49; seats by party as of April 2017 – APC 66, PDP 43
House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – APC 225, PDP 125, other 10

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi “Yemi” OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note – the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

Head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi “Yemi” OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015
Cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to at least one member from each of the 36 states

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria’s 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 16 February 2019

Election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote – Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 54%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 45%, other 1%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices

Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70

Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
Exports commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)

Exports partners: India 30.6%, US 12.1%, Spain 6.6%, China 5.6%, France 5.5%, Netherlands 4.4%, Indonesia 4.4% (2017)

Imports commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals)

Imports partners: China 21.1%, Belgium 8.7%, US 8.4%, South Korea 7.5%, UK 4.4% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 95,500,000
Electrification – total population: 45%)
Electrification – urban areas: 55%)
Electrification – rural areas: 37% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 47,759,904; and percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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