Overview: Niger

Population: 19,245,344 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 16.4% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 3.19% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Religions: Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 49.01% (male 4,757,806/female 4,674,437); 15-24 years: 19.1% (male 1,815,689/female 1,860,230); 25-54 years: 25.97% (male 2,495,927/female 2,501,362); 55-64 years: 3.28% (male 328,082/female 304,030); 65 years and over: 2.64% (male 259,046/female 248,735) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 111.6; youth dependency ratio: 106.2; elderly dependency ratio: 5.4; and potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 118,868 (Nigeria); 58,304 (Mali) (2018)

IDPs: 144,000 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2017)

Area: Total: 1.267 million sq. km; land: 1,266,700 sq. km; water: 300 sq. km

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.02 physicians/1,000 Population

Health expenditure: 5.8% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 100% of population; Rural: 48.6% of population; and Total: 58.2% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 0% of population; Rural: 51.4% of population; and Total: 41.8% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 6% of GDP (2015)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 19.1%; Male: 27.3%; and female: 11% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 0.5%; Male: 0.8%; and female: 0.2% (2011 est.)

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular – region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder)

Independence Day: 3 August 1960 (from France

History: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup d’Etat cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad – l seat per continent – elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note – the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election

Elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021

Election results: percent of vote by party – PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama’a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party – PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama’a 3, RDP-Jama’a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8

Executive branch
Chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011

Head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly

Election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round – ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round – ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members

Judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected – 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms

Subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts

Exports commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions

Exports partners: France 30.2%, Thailand 18.3%, Malaysia 9.9%, Nigeria 8.3%, Mali 5%, Switzerland 4.9% (2017)

Imports commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals)

Imports partners: France 28.8%, China 14.4%, Malaysia 5.7%, Nigeria 5.4%, Thailand 5.3%, US 5.1%, India 4.9% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 15,200,000
Electrification – total population: 15%)
Electrification – urban areas: 62%)
Electrification – rural areas: 4% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 805,702; and percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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