Overview: Mozambique


Urban: 36% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.46% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%)

Languages: Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.72% (male 5,975,407/female 5,908,511); 15-24 years: 21.57% (male 2,824,012/female 2,907,033); 25-54 years: 27.42% (male 3,409,425/female 3,875,837); 55-64 years: 3.4% (male 435,203/female 468,939); 65 years and over: 2.9% (male 352,546/female 416,793) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 93.5; youth dependency ratio: 87.5; elderly dependency ratio: 6.1; and potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 10,368 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

Area: total: 799,380 sq. km; land: 786,380 sq. km; water: 13,000 sq. km

Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.06 physicians/1,000 Population (2013)

Health expenditure: 7% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 80.6% of population; Rural: 37% of population; and Total: 51.1% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 19.4% of population; Rural: 63% of population; and Total: 48.9% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 6.5% of GDP (2013)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 58.8%; Male: 73.3%; and female: 45.4% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 7.4%; Male: 7.7%; and female: 7.1% (2015 est.)

Government type: presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular – provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia)

History: previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the Assembly of the Republic membership; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions including the independence and sovereignty of the state, the republican form of government, basic rights and freedoms, and universal suffrage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; referenda not required for passage of other amendments; amended 2007, 2018 (2018)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note – in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019

Election results: percent of vote by party – FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.2%; seats by party – FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015

Head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: president elected directly by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held on 15 October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote – Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note – the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic; vice president appointed by the president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and ratified by the Assembly of the Republic; other judges elected by the Assembly; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed – 1 by the president, 5 by the Assembly, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms

Subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts

Exports commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity

Exports partners: India 28.1%, Netherlands 24.4%, South Africa 16.7% (2017)

Imports commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles)

Imports partners: C South Africa 36.8%, China 7%, UAE 6.8%, India 6.2%, Portugal 4.4% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 15,700,000
Electrification – total population: 39%)
Electrification – urban areas: 66%)
Electrification – rural areas: 27% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 4,543,284; and percent of population: 17.5% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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