Overview: Madagascar

Population: 25,054,161 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 37.2% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.5% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry – Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official), English

Religions: Christian, indigenous religionist, Muslim.

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.87% (male 5,035,160/female 4,952,909); 15-24 years: 20.34% (male 2,556,130/female 2,538,644); 25-54 years: 32.12% (male 4,022,698/female 4,025,038); 55-64 years: 4.38% (male 535,300/female 560,932); 65 years and over: 3.3% (male 374,770/female 452,580) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 80.1; youth dependency ratio: 75; elderly dependency ratio: 5.1; and potential support ratio: 19.6 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs: 246,842 (cyclone in 2017) (2017)

Area: total: 587,041 sq. km; land: 581,540 sq. km; water: 5,501 sq. km

Irrigated land: 10,860 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.14 physicians/1,000 Population

Health expenditure: 3% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 81.6% of population; Rural: 35.3% of population; and Total: 51.5% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 18.4% of population; Rural: 64.7% of population; and Total: 48.5% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure:2.1% of GDP (2013)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 64.7%; Male: 66.7%; and female: 62.6% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 1%; Male: 1%; and female: 1% (2012 est.)

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara)

History: previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic in consultation with the cabinet or supported by a least two-thirds of both the Senate and National Assembly membership; passage requires at least three-fourths approval of both the Senate and National Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles including the form and powers of government, the sovereignty of the state, and the autonomy of Madagascar’s collectivities cannot be amended (2017)

Legal system: Civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of:
Senate or Antenimieran-Doholona (dissolved following the 2009 coup and reestablished in December 2015) (63 seats; 42 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of municipal, communal, regional, and provincial leaders and 21 appointed by the president of the republic; members serve 6-year terms
National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms

Elections: Senate – last held 29 December 2015 (next to be held in 2021
National Assembly – last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2019

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – TIM 3, MAPAR 2, LEADER-Fanilo 1, independent 2, appointed by the president 21
National Assembly – percent of vote by party – MAPAR 17.3%, MR 10.8%, VPM MMM 8.2%, PHI 3.8%, AMHM 3.5%, LEADER-Fanilo 2.8%, FFF 1.6%, AIM 1.%, SFN 0.3%, independent and other 50.6%; seats by party – MAPAR 49, MR 20, VPM MMM 13, PHI 5, AMHM 2, LEADER-Fanilo 5, FFF 2, AIM 2, SFN 2, other 22, independent 25, seats with delayed elections 4

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimana (since 25 January 2014

Head of government: Prime Minister Christian NTSAY (since 6 June 2018

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October and 20 December 2013 (next to be held on 7 November and 19 December 2018); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president

Election results: Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA elected president in second round; percent of vote – Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA (HVM) 53.5%, Jean Louis ROBINSON (AVANA) 46.5%)

Note: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down, handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with a general election in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for an early 2013 election – the first round was held on 25 October 2013 and the second on 20 December 2013

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); note – the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the president

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed – 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year terms

Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunals

Exports commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products, gems, ilmenite, cobalt, nickel.

Exports partners:France 24.8%, US 16.5%, China 6.7%, Germany 6.5%, Japan 6%, Netherlands 4.7% (2017)

Imports commodities: capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food)

Imports partners: China 18.7%, India 9.3%, France 6.4%, South Africa 5.6%, UAE 5.3% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 19,500,000
Electrification – total population: 15%)
Electrification – urban areas: 37%)
Electrification – rural areas: 4% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 1,151,563; and percent of population: 4.7% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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