Overview: Libya

Population: 6,653,210 (July 2017 est.)

Population distribution: Well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water

Population growth: 1.58% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Languages: Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq


Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.84% (male 879,311/female 839,824); 15-24 years: 17.09% (male 584,117/female 552,680); 25-54 years: 47.28% (male 1,651,362/female 1,494,106); 55-64 years: 5.48% (male 185,679/female 179,224); 65 years and over: 4.31% (male 141,867/female 145,040) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 49.1; youth dependency ratio: 42.6; elderly dependency ratio: 6.4; and potential support ratio: 15.5 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): 23,490 (Syria) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,697 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,583 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 5,307 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2018)

IDPs: 192,513 (conflict between pro-QADHAFI and anti-QADHAFI force in 2011; post-QADHAFI tribal clashes 2014) (2018)

Area: Total: 1,759,540 sq. km; land: 1,759,540 sq. km; water: 0 sq. km

Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 2.09 physicians/1,000 Population (2014)

Health expenditure:5% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 54.2% of population; Rural: 54.9% of population; and Total: 54.4% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 45.8% of population; Rural: 45.1% of population; and Total: 45.6% of Population
2001 est.)

Education expenditure: NA

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 91%; Male: 96.7%; and female: 85.6% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 48.7%; Male: 40.8%; and female: 67.8% (2012 est.)

Government type: in transition

Administrative divisions: 22 districts (muhafazah, singular – muhafazat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi (Benghazi), Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus (Tripoli), Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati)

History: previous 1951, 1977; in July 2017, the Constitutional Assembly completed and approved a draft of a new permanent constitution; the House of Representatives was scheduled to discuss the draft law on a referendum for the constitution at the end of July 2018 (2018)

Legal system: Libya’s post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral House of Representatives (HoR) or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA); note – the High Council of State serves as an advisory group for the HoR

Elections: election last held in June 2014 (next to be held on 10 December 2018); note – the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the HoR election unconstitutional, but the HoR and the international community rejected the ruling

Election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – independent 200; note – not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the HoR also boycotted the election

Executive branch
Chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015
Head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015
Cabinet: GNA Presidency Council (pending approval by the House of Representatives – as of July 2018
Elections/appointments: NA
Election results: NA

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): NA; note – government is in transition

Exports commodities:crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals

Exports partners: Italy 19%, Spain 12.5%, France 11%, Egypt 8.6%, Germany 8.6%, China 8.3%, US 4.9%, UK 4.6%, Netherlands 4.5% (2017)

Imports commodities: machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products)

Imports partners: China 13.5%, Turkey 11.3%, Italy 6.9%, South Korea 5.9%, Spain 4.8% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 13,083
Electrification – total population: 99.8%)
Electrification – urban areas: 100%)
eElectrification – rural areas: 99.1% (2013)

Internet users: total: 1,326,194; and percent of population: 20.3% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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