Overview: Kenya

Population
47,615,739

Urban: 27% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 1.69% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups:Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%)

Languages: English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Religions: Christian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.02% (male 9,557,274/female 9,497,870); 15-24 years: 19.15% (male 4,552,448/female 4,567,894); 25-54 years: 33.91% (male 8,170,264/female 7,976,751); 55-64 years: 3.92% (male 856,092/female 1,009,075); 65 years and over: 3% (male 614,751/female 813,320) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 78.3; youth dependency ratio: 73.7; elderly dependency ratio: 4.6; and potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): 527,235 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 114,817 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 39,180 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,811 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 13,265 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers); 10,190 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 159,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2017)

stateless persons: 18,500 (2017); note – the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards

area: Total: 580,367 sq. km; land: 569,140 sq. km; water: 11,227 sq. km

Irrigated land: 1,030 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.2 physicians/1,000 Population (2014)

Health expenditure: 5.7% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 81.6% of population; Rural: 56.8% of population; and Total: 63.2% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 18.4% of population; Rural: 43.2% of population; and Total: 36.8% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure:5.3% of GDP (2015)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 78%; Male: 81.1%; and female: 74.9% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages
NA

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang’a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot)

Constitution
History: previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010

Amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by petition of at least one million eligible voters; passage of amendments by Parliament requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses in each of two readings, approval in a referendum by majority of votes cast by at least 20% participation of eligible voters in at least one-half of Kenya’s counties, and approval by the president; passage of amendments introduced by petition requires approval by a majority of county assemblies, approval by majority vote of both houses, and approval by the president (2017)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral parliament consists of:
Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote – 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms

National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly – 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: Senate – last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2021
National Assembly – last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2021

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party/coalition – NA; seats by party/coalition – Jubilee Party 24; National Super Alliance 28, other 14, independent 1
National Assembly – percent of vote by party/coalition – NA; seats by party/coalition – Jubilee Party 165, National Super Alliance 119, other 51, independent 13

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note – position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly

Elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 26 October 2017 (next to be held in 2022

Election results: Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president; percent of vote – Uhuru KENYATTA (Jubilee Party) 98.3%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 1%, other 0.7%; note – Kenya held a previous presidential election on 8 August 2017, but Kenya’s Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the results, citing irregularities; the political opposition boycotted the October vote

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges

Judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70

Subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates’ courts; religious courts

Exports commodities: tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement, apparel

Exports partners: Uganda 10.8%, Pakistan 10.6%, US 8.1%, Netherlands 7.3%, UK 6.4%, Tanzania 4.8%, UAE 4.4% (2017)

Imports commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, oil, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics)

Imports partners: China 22.5%, India 9.9%, UAE 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.1%, Japan 4.5% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 35,400,000
Electrification – total population: 20%)
Electrification – urban areas: 60%)
Electrification – rural areas: 7% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 12,165,597; and Percent of population: 26.0% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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