Overview: Guinea Bissau

Population: 1,792,338 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 43.4% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 1.86% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Fulani 28.5%, Balanta 22.5%, Mandinga 14.7%, Papel 9.1%, Manjaco 8.3%, Beafada 3.5%, Mancanha 3.1%, Bijago 2.1%, Felupe 1.7%, Mansoanca 1.4%, Balanta Mane 1%, other 1.8%, none 2.2% (2008 est.)

Languages: Crioulo (lingua franca), Portuguese (official; largely used as a second or third language), Pular (a Fula language), Mandingo

Religions: Muslim 45.1%, Christian 22.1%, animist 14.9%, none 2%, unspecified 15.9% (2008 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.03% (male 349,256/female 350,327); 15-24 years: 20.18% (male 179,389/female 182,242); 25-54 years: 32.77% (male 292,736/female 294,526); 55-64 years: 4.57% (male 32,156/female 49,761); 65 years and over: 3.46% (male 22,574/female 39,371) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 80.4; youth dependency ratio: 75.2; elderly dependency ratio: 5.2; and potential support ratio: 19.3 (2015 est.)

Physicians density: 0.08 physicians/1,000 Population

Health expenditure: 5.6% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 98.8% of population; Rural: 60.3% of population; and Total: 79.3% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 1.2% of population; Rural: 39.7% of population; and Total: 20.7% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 2.1% of GDP (2013)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 59.9%; Male: 71.8%; and female: 48.3% (2015 est.)

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular – regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama/Bijagos, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali)

History: promulgated 16 May 1984; note – constitution suspended following military coup in April 2012 and restored in 2014
Amendments: proposed by the National People’s Assembly if supported by at least one-third of its members, by the Council of State (a presidential consultant body), or by the government; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; constitutional articles on the Republican and secular form of government and national sovereignty cannot be amended; amended 1991, 1993, 1996 (2017)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of civil law, which incorporated Portuguese law at independence and influenced by early French civil code and customary law

Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National People’s Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (102 seats; members directly elected in 2 single (for citizens living abroad) one for Africa and one for Europe)- and 27 multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms

Elections: last held on 13 April 2014 (next to be held on 18 November 2018

Election results: percent of vote by party – PAIGC 48%, PRS 30.8%, other 21.2%; seats by party – PAIGC 57, PRS 41, other 4

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jose Mario VAZ (since 17 June 2014

Head of government: Prime Minister Aristides GOMES (since 16 April 2018

Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 April 2014 with a runoff on 18 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People’s Assembly

Election results: Jose Mario VAZ elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round – Jose Mario VAZ (PAIGC) 41%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (independent) 25.1%, other 33.9%; percent of vote in second round – Jose Mario VAZ 61.9%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM 38.1%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Suprema da Tribunal Justica (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers); note – the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdiction

Judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and judiciary discipline; judges appointed by the president for life

Subordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military court

Exports commodities: fish, shrimp; cashews, peanuts, palm kernels, raw and sawn lumber

Exports partners: India 67.1%, Vietnam 21.1% (2017)

Imports commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products)

Imports partners: Portugal 47.8%, Senegal 12.1%, China 10.4%, Netherlands 8.1%, Pakistan 5.4% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 1,300,000
Electrification – total population: 21%)
Electrification – urban areas: 37%)
Electrification – rural areas: 6% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 66,169; and percent of population: 3.8% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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