Overview: Ghana

Ghana is a West African country composed of various cultural groups: the Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.). It formed from the merger of the British Protectorate of the Gold Coast and the former Germany colony of Togoland lost to Britain after World War One. Pre-colonial societies included the Ashanti, the Fante, and the Mande who invented African rice. The high diversity among this nation of 27m people is credited to its long existence within history of mankind.


Urban: 56.1% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.17% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)

Languages: Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%)

Religions:Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.01% (male 5,253,430/female 5,198,892); 15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,548,661/female 2,575,160); 25-54 years: 34.14% (male 4,554,972/female 4,834,765); 55-64 years: 4.97% (male 664,866/female 701,277); 65 years and over: 4.25% (male 538,790/female 629,111) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 73; youth dependency ratio: 67.1; elderly dependency ratio: 5.9; and potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): 6,645 (Cote d’Ivoire) (flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2017)

Area: Total: 238,533 sq. km; land: 227,533 sq. km; water: 11,000 sq. km

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.1 physicians/1,000 Population

Health expenditure: 3.6% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 92.6% of population; Rural: 84% of population; and Total: 88.7% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 7.4% of population; Rural: 16% of population; and Total: 11.3% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 6.2% of GDP (2014)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 76.6%; Male: 82%; and female: 71.4% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 15.2%; Male: 15.8%; and female: 14.6% (2015 est.)

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

History: several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993

Amendments: proposed by Parliament; consideration requires prior referral to the Council of State, a body of prominent citizens who advise the president of the republic; passage of amendments to “entrenched” constitutional articles (including those on national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and authorities of the branches of government, and amendment procedures) requires approval in a referendum by at least 40% participation of eligible voters and at least 75% of votes cast, followed by at least two-thirds majority vote in Parliament, and assent by the president; amendments to non-entrenched articles do not require referenda; amended 1996 (2017)

Legal system
Mixed system of English common law and customary law

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms

Elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020

Election results: percent of vote by party – NPP 54%, NDC 44%, other 2%; seats by party – NPP 171, NDC 104

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament

Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020

Election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president in the first round; percent of vote – Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 53.7%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.5%, other 1.8%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices

Judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70

Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals

Exports commodities: oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products

Exports partners: India 23.8%, UAE 13.4%, China 10.8%, Switzerland 10.1%, Vietnam 5.2%, Burkina Faso 4% (2017)

Imports commodities: capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports partners: China 16.8%, US 8%, UK 6.2%, Belgium 5.9%, India 4.1% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 7,300,000
Electrification – total population: 72%)
Electrification – urban areas: 92%)
Electrification – rural areas: 50% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 9,328,018; and percent of population: 34.7% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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