Overview: Gambia

Population: 2,051,363 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 61.3% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.05% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups:Mandinka/Jahanka 34%, Fulani/Tukulur/Lorobo 22.4%, Wolof 12.6%, Jola/Karoninka 10.7%, Serahuleh 6.6%, Serer 3.2%, Manjago 2.1%, Bambara 1%, Creole/Aku Marabout 0.7%, other 0.9%, non-Gambian 5.2%, no answer 0.6% (2013 est.)

Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars

Religions: Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no response 0.1% (2013 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.44% (male 385,646/female 382,328); 15-24 years: 20.47% (male 207,611/female 212,366); 25-54 years: 34.4% (male 345,788/female 359,976); 55-64 years: 4.2% (male 41,295/female 44,865); 65 years and over: 3.48% (male 33,153/female 38,335) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 92.3; youth dependency ratio: 87.8; elderly dependency ratio: 4.5; and potential support ratio: 22.3 (2015 est.)

Refugees (country of origin): 7,530 (Senegal) (2017)

Area: total: 11,300 so km; land: 10,120 sq. km; water: 1,180 sq. km

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.11 physicians/1,000 Population (2015)

Health expenditure: 7.3% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 94.2% of population; Rural: 84.4% of population; and Total: 90.2% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 5.8% of population; Rural: 15.6% of population; and Total: 9.8% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 2.8% of GDP (2013)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 55.5%; Male: 63.9%; and female: 47.6% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 13.1%; Male: 9.1%; and female: 17.2% (2012 est.)

Government type:
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 5 regions, 1 city*, and 1 municipality**; Banjul*, Central River, Kanifing**, Lower River, North Bank, Upper River, West Coast)

Constitution
History: previous 1965 (independence act), 1970; latest adopted 8 April 1996, approved by referendum 8 August 1996, effective 16 January 1997; note – referendum on new constitution scheduled for late 2019

Amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly membership in each of several readings and approval by the president of the republic; a referendum is required for amendments affecting national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, government structures and authorities, taxation, and public funding; passage by referendum requires participation of at least 50% of eligible voters and approval by at least 75% of votes cast; amended 2001, 2004, 2010 (2017)

Legal system
Mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly (58 seats; 53 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: last held on 6 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022

Election results: percent of vote by party – UDP 37.5%, GDC 17.4%, APRC 16%, PDOIS 9%, NRP 6.3%, PPP 2.5%, independent 9.6%; seats by party – UDP 31, APRC 5, GDC 5, NRP 5, PDOIS 4, PPP 2, independent 1

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 1 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); vice president appointed by the president

Election results: Adama BARROW elected president; percent of vote – Adama BARROW (Coalition 2016) 43.3%, Yahya JAMMEH (APRC) 39.6%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC) 17.1%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of The Gambia (consists of the chief justice and 6 justices; court sessions held with 5 justices

Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, a 6-member independent body of high-level judicial officials, a presidential appointee, and a National Assembly appointee; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement age

Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Special Criminal Court; Khadis or Muslim courts; district tribunals; magistrate’s courts

Exports commodities: peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels.

Exports partners: Guinea-Bissau 51.9%, Vietnam 14.6%, Senegal 8.8%, Mali 7.2% (2017)

Imports commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery, and transport equipment

Imports partners: Cote dIvoire 11.5%, Brazil 10.6%, Spain 10.2%, China 7.8%, Russia 6.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, India 5% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 1,200,000
Electrification – total population: 36%)
Electrification – urban areas: 60%)
Electrification – rural areas: 2% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 371,785; and percent of population: 18.5% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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