Overview: Gabon

Population
1,772,255

Urban: 89.4% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 1.92% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Bapounou, Nzebi, Obamba); other Africans and Europeans, 154,000, including 10,700 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi

Religions: Roman Catholic 42.3%, Protestant 12.3%, other Christian 27.4%, Muslim 9.8%, animist 0.6%, other 0.5%, none/no answer 7.1% (2012 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 373,307/female 369,237); 15-24 years: 20.46% (male 181,823/female 180,837); 25-54 years: 29.52% (male 262,511/female 260,673); 55-64 years: 4.36% (male 37,178/female 40,014); 65 years and over: 3.76% (male 28,664/female 38,011) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 67.4; youth dependency ratio: 59.9; elderly dependency ratio: 7.6; and potential support ratio: 13.2 (2015 est.)

Area: total: 267,667 sq. km; land: 257,667 sq. km; water: 10,000 sq. km

Irrigated land: 40 sq. km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.41 physicians/1,000 Population (2016)

Health expenditure: 3.4% of GDP (2014)

Education expenditure: 2.7% of GDP (2014)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 83.2%; Male: 85.3%; and female: 81% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 35.7%; Male: 30.5%; and female: 41.9% (2010 est.)

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem)

Constitution
History: previous 1961; latest drafted May 1990, adopted 15 March 1991, promulgated 26 March 1991

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the Council of Ministers, or by one-third of either house of Parliament; passage requires Constitutional Court evaluation, at least two-thirds majority vote of two-thirds of the Parliament membership convened in joint session, and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on Gabon’s democratic form of government cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2011 (2017)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Gabon
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate (102 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal councils and departmental assemblies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms)

National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

Elections: Senate – last held on 13 December 2014 (next to be held in January 2020
National Assembly – last held on 17 December 2011 (originally scheduled for 27 December 2016; the election has been delayed twice and was supposed to take place by the end of April 2018; the Constitutional Court dissolved the National Assembly at its expiry on 30 April 2018 when National Assembly elections were not held by 30 April 2018; no new election date has been set; National Assembly powers transferred to the Senate until a new election takes place

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PDG 81, CLR 7, PSD 2, ADERE-UPG 1, UPG 1, PGCI 1, independent 7
National Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PDG 113, RPG 3, other 4

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Ali BONGO Ondimba (since 16 October 2009)

Head of government: Prime Minister Emmanuel ISSOZE-NGONDET (since 3 May 2018); note – Prime Minister Emmanuel ISSOZE-NGONDET (since 29 September 2016) resigned on 1 May 2018, after the constitutional court dissolved the National Assembly and ordered his resignation when elections failed to be held by 30 April 2018; reinstated by President Ali BONGO

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 27 August 2016 (next to be held in August 2023); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Ali BONGO Ondimba reelected president; percent of vote – Ali BONGO Ondimba (PDG) 49.8%, Jean PING (UFC) 48.2%, other 2.0%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 4 permanent specialized supreme courts – Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation, Administrative Supreme Court or Conseil d’Etat, Accounting Supreme Court or Cour des Comptes, Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle – and the non-permanent Court of State Security, initiated only for cases of high treason by the president and criminal activity by executive branch officials

Judge selection and term of office: appointment and tenure of Supreme, Administrative, Accounting, and State Security courts NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed – 3 by the national president, 3 by the president of the Senate, and 3 by the president of the National Assembly; judges serve 7-year, single renewable terms

Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; county courts; military courts

Exports commodities: crude oil, timber, manganese, uranium.

Exports partners: China 36.4%, US 10%, Ireland 8.5%, Netherlands 6.3%, South Korea 5.1%, Australia 5%, Italy 4.6% (2017)

Imports commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, construction materials

Imports partners: France 23.6%, Belgium 19.6%, China 15.2% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 200,000
Electrification – total population: 89%)
Electrification – urban areas: 97%)
Electrification – rural areas: 38% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 835,408; and percent of population: 48.1% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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