Overview: Ethiopia

105,350,020 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 20.8% of total population (2018)

Ethnic groups
Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)

Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)

Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.47% (male 22,963,502/female 22,826,957); 15-24 years: 20.11% (male 10,516,591/female 10,669,695); 25-54 years: 29.58% (male 15,464,171/female 15,702,104); 55-64 years: 3.91% (male 1,998,711/female 2,115,210); 65 years and over: 2.94% (male 1,391,339/female 1,701,740) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 82.1; youth dependency ratio: 75.8; elderly dependency ratio: 6.3; and potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): 422,240 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 257,283 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 173,879 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 44,620 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 1,740,900 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Somali and Oromia regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2018)

Area: Total: 1,104,300 sq. km; land: 1 million sq. km; water: 104,300 sq. km

Irrigated land: 2,900 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Health expenditure
4.9% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 93.1% of population; Rural: 48.6% of population: Total: 57.3% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 6.9% of population; and Rural: 51.4% of population: Total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure
4.5% of GDP (2013)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 49.1%; Male: 57.2%; and female: 41.1% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 25.2%; Male: 17.1%; and female: 30.9% (2016 est.)

Government type: federal parliamentary republic

Administrative divisions
9 ethnically based regional states (kililoch, singular – kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular – astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)

History: several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995
Amendments: proposals submitted for discussion require two-thirds majority approval in either house of Parliament or majority approval of one-third of the State Councils; passage of amendments other than constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms and the initiation and amendment of the constitution requires two-thirds majority vote in a joint session of Parliament and majority vote by two-thirds of the State Councils; passage of amendments affecting rights and freedoms and amendment procedures requires a two-thirds majority vote in each house of Parliament and majority vote by all the State Councils (2017)

Legal system
Civil law system

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms)

House of People’s Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms

Note: House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People’s Representatives is responsible for passing legislation

Elections: House of People’s Representatives – last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020_

Election results: House of Representatives – percent of vote by party/coalition – NA; seats by party/coalition – EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDUP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1

Executive branch
Chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)

Head of government: Prime Minister ABIY Ahmed (since 2 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen (since 29 November 2012); note – Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012) resigned on 15 February 2018
Cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People’s Representatives

Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections

Election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president; Parliament vote – 659 (unanimous)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note – the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues

Judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People’s Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People’s Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60

Subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts.

Exports commodities: coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)

Exports partners: Sudan 23.3%, Switzerland 10.2%, China 8.1%, Somalia 6.6%, Netherlands 6.2%, US 4.7%, Germany 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, UK 4.6% (2017)

Imports commodities: machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)

Imports partners: China 24.1%, Saudi Arabia 10.1%, India 6.4%, Kuwait 5.3%, France 5.2% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 71,200,000
Electrification – total population: 24%)
Electrification – urban areas: 85%)
Electrification – rural areas: 10% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 15,731,741; and Percent of population: 15.4% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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