Overview: Eswatini


Urban: 23.8% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 1.08% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups
African 97%, European 3%

English (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)

Christian 90% (Zionist – a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship – 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, other 30% – includes Anglican, Methodist, Mormon, Jehovah’s Witness), Muslim 2%, other 8% (includes Baha’i, Buddhist, Hindu, indigenous religionist, Jewish) (2015 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.01% (male 259,646/female 253,976); 15-24 years: 22.12% (male 164,117/female 160,478); 25-54 years: 34.6% (male 264,262/female 243,362); 55-64 years: 4.3% (male 25,319/female 37,763); 65 years and over: 3.97% (male 22,113/female 36,116) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 68.8; youth dependency ratio: 63.5; elderly dependency ratio: 5.2; and potential support ratio: 19.1 (2015 est.)

Area: total: 17,364 sq. km; land: 17,204 sq. km; water: 160 sq. km

Irrigated land: 500 sq km (2012)

Physicians density: 0.15 physicians/1,000 Population

Health expenditure: 9.3% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 93.6% of population; Rural: 68.9% of population; and Total: 74.1% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 6.4% of population; Rural: 31.1% of population; and Total: 25.9% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 7.1% of GDP (2014)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 87.5%; Male: 87.4%; and female: 87.5% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: NA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Administrative divisions: 4 regions; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni)

History: previous 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006

Amendments: proposed at a joint sitting of both houses of Parliament; passage requires majority vote by both houses and/or majority vote in a referendum, and assent by the king; passage of amendments affecting “specially entrenched” constitutional provisions requires at least three-fourths majority vote by both houses, passage by simple majority vote in a referendum, and assent by the king; passage of “entrenched” provisions requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses, passage in a referendum, and assent by the king (2017)

Legal system: Mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Eswatini
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament (Libandla) consists of:

Senate (30 seats; 20 members appointed by the monarch and 10 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the House of Assembly; members serve 5-year terms
House of Assembly (66 seats; 55 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies or tinkhundla by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, 10 members appointed by the monarch, and the speaker of the House elected by the

House; members serve 5-year terms

Elections: House of Assembly – last held on 24 August 2013 with a runoff on 20 September 2013 (tentatively on 30 September 2018

Election results: House of Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – independent 59

Executive branch
Chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986

Head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Paul DLAMINI (since 2013

Cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch; at least one-half of the cabinet membership must be appointed from among elected members of the House of Assembly

Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among members of the House of Assembly

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice – ex officio – and at least 12 justices); note – the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters

Judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JSC, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JSC head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices

Subordinate courts: magistrates’ courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional laws (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens
Note: the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary

Exports commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, timber, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus, and canned fruit.

Exports partners: South Africa 94% (2017)

Imports commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

Imports partners: South Africa 81.6%, China 5.2% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 900,000
Electrification – total population: 27%)
Electrification – urban areas: 40%)
Electrification – rural areas: 24% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 414,724; and percent of population: 28.6% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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