Overview: Egypt

Population
97,041,072 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 42.7% of total Population (2018)

Population growth: 2.45% (2017 EST)

Ethnic groups
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census

Languages
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2015 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.29% (male 16,720,307/female 15,583,019); 15-24 years: 18.94% (male 9,464,262/female 8,919,614); 25-54 years: 37.6% (male 18,545,422/female 17,944,582); 55-64 years: 5.95% (male 2,861,136/female 2,911,586); 65 years and over: 4.22% (male 1,993,248/female 2,097,896) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 61.8; youth dependency ratio: 53.6; elderly dependency ratio: 8.2; and potential support ratio: 12.2 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees (country of origin): refugees (country of origin): 70,027 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2016); 6,611 (Iraq) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,561 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017); 131,019 (Syria) (refugees and asylum seekers); 38,133 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 15,204 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 14,359 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 12,942 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 82,000 (2017)

stateless persons: 19 (2016)

Area: Total: 1,001,450 sq. km; land: 995,450 sq. km; water: 6,000 sq. km

Irrigated land: 36,500 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.81 physicians/1,000 Population (2014)

Health expenditure: 5.6% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 100% of population; Rural: 99% of population; and Total: 99.4% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 0% of population; Rural: 1% of population; and Total: 0.6% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure: 3.8% of GDP (2008)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 73.8%; Male: 82.2%; and female: 65.4% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 30.8%; Male: 27.2%; and female: 38.5% (2016 est.)

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions: 27 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma’iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa’id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina’ (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina’ (North Sinai), Suhaj)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom not amendable unless the amendment “brings more guarantees” (2017)

Legal system
Mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt
Dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members – with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers – elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; member term 5 years; note – inaugural session held on 10 January 2016

Elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next to be held in 2020

Election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party -– Free Egyptians Party 65, Future of the Nation 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland’s Protector Party 18, Republican People’s Party 13, Congress Party 12, Al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian National Movement 4, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, Reform and Development Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, El Serh El Masry el Hor 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, independent 351

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Abdelfattah ELSISI (since 8 June 2014

Head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018); note – Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015) resigned 6 June 2018

Cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive authorities and approved by the House of Representatives

Elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 March 2018 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives

Election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI elected president in first round; percent of valid votes case – Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 97.8%, Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA (El Ghad Party) 2.3%; note – over 7% of ballots cast were deemed invalid

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitration on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices”; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) – consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council

Judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life

Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004

Exports commodities
crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food.

Exports partners
UAE 10.9%, Italy 10%, US 7.4%, UK 5.7%, Turkey 4.4%, Germany 4.3%, India 4.3% (2017)

Imports commodities
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels)

Imports partners
China 7.9%, UAE 5.2%, Germany 4.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, US 4.4%, Russia 4.3% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 300,000
Electrification – total population: 99.6%)
Electrification – urban areas: 100%)
Electrification – rural areas: 99.3% (2013)

Internet users: total: 37,122,537; and percent of population: 39.2% (July 2016 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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