Overview: Chad

Population
12,075,985 (July 2017 EST.).

Urban: 23.1% of Total Population (2018)

Population growth:1.86% (2017 EST.).

Ethnic groups
Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 EST.)

Religions
Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 EST.).

Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.02% (Male 2,634,817/Female 2,560,790); 15-24 years: 21.46% (Male 1,267,944/Female 1,324,115); 25-54 years: 28.62% (Male 1,574,782/Female 1,881,183); 55-64 years: 3.88% (Male 206,627/Female 261,586); 65 years and over: 3.02% (Male 150,364/Female 213,777) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 100.2; youth dependency ratio: 95.2; elderly dependency ratio: 4.9

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (Country of origin): 331,839 (Sudan); 99,612 (Central African Republic); 11,009 (Nigeria) (2018)

IDPs: 129,010 (majority are in the east) (2018)

Area: Total: 1.284 million sq km; land: 1,259,200 sq km; water: 24,800 sq km

Irrigated Land: 300 sq km (2012)

Health expenditure
3.6% of GDP (2014)

Education expenditure
2.9% of GDP (2008)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic; and total population: 22.3%; Male: 31.3%; and female: 14% (2016 est.)

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions
23 regions (regions, singular – region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N’Djamena, Wadi Fira

Legislative branch
Description: Unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 163 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 25 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)

Elections: Last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held in 2019

Election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990

Head of government: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990); prime minister position eliminated under the 2018 constitution)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

Elections/appointments: President directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits

Election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round;

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists),

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors – 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges – 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists – 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms

Subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace

Exports commodities
Oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter

Exports partners
US 38.7%, China 16.6%, NetherLands 15.7%, UAE 12.2%, India 6.3% (2017)

Imports commodities
Machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports partners
China 19.9%, Cameroon 17.2%, France 17%, US 5.4%, India 4.9%, Senegal 4.5% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 10,477,071
Electrification – Total population: 4%)
Electrification – Urban areas: 14%)
Electrification – Rural areas: 1% (2013)
Electricity – production: 215 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 200 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity – imports: kWh (2016 EST.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity: 47,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels: 100% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels: 0% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants: 0% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources: 0% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)

Internet users: Total: 592623; and Percent of population: 5.9% (July 2016 EST.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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