Overview: Cameroon


Urban: 56.4% of total population (2018)

Population growth: 2.56% (2017 EST.)

Ethnic groups
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%)

24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)

Roman Catholic 38.4%, Protestant 26.3%, other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 20.9%, animist 5.6%, other 1%, non-believer 3.2% (2005 EST.).
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.39% (male 5,337,879/female 5,257,026); 15-24 years: 19.56% (male 2,456,061/female 2,432,500); 25-54 years: 30.87% (male 3,880,906/female 3,835,107); 55-64 years: 3.98% (male 485,059/female 509,649); 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 372,415/female 428,283) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 85.9; youth dependency ratio: 80; elderly dependency ratio: 5.9

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

Refugees (Country of origin): 261,245 (Central African Republic); 97,817 (Nigeria) (2018)
IDPs: 238,099 (2018)

Area: Total 475,440 sq km; land: 472,710 sq km; water: 2,730 sq km

Irrigated land (290 sq km (2012)

Health expenditure
4.1% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 94.8% of population; Rural: 52.7% of population; and Total: 75.6% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 5.2% of population; Rural: 47.3% of population; and Total: 24.4% of population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure
2.8% of GDP (2013)

Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 75%; Male: 81.2%; and female: 68.9% (2015 EST.)

Unemployment youth ages (Total: 10.6%; Male: 9%; and female: 12.7% (2014 EST.)

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions
10 regions (regions, singular – region); Adamaoua, Centre, East (EST), Far North (Extreme-Nord), Littoral, North (Nord), North-West (Nord-Ouest), West (Ouest), South (Sud), South-West (Sud-Ouest)

History: Several previous; latest effective 18 January 1996

Amendments: Proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; amendment drafts require approval of at least one-third of the membership in either house of Parliament; passage requires absolute majority vote of the Parliament membership; passage of drafts requested by the president for a second reading in Parliament requires two-thirds majority vote of its membership; the president can opt to submit drafts to a referendum, in which case passage requires a simple majority; constitutional articles on Cameroon’s unity and territorial integrity and its democratic principles cannot be amended; amended 2008 (2017)

Legal system
Mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law

Citizenship by birth: No
Citizenship by descent only: At least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon
Dual citizenship recognized: No
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats; 70 members indirectly elected by regional councils and 30 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms


Senate – last held on 25 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party –

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982

Head of government: Prime Minister Philemon YANG (since 30 June 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Amadou ALI (since 2014

Cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: President directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote – Paul BIYA (CPDM

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cameroon (consists of 9 titular and 6 surrogate judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and audit chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 11 members

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the advice of the Higher Judicial Council of Cameroon, a body chaired by the president and includes the minister of justice, selected magistrates, and representatives of the National Assembly; judge term NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president for single 9-year terms

Subordinate courts: Parliamentary Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases involving the president and prime minister); appellate and first instance courts; circuit and magistrate’s courts

Exports commodities
Crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports partners
Netherlands 15.6%, France 12.6%, China 11.7%, Belgium 6.8%, Italy 6.3%, Algeria 4.8%, Malaysia 4.4% (2017)

Imports commodities
Machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports partners
China 19%, France 10.3%, Thailand 7.9%, Nigeria 4.1% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 10,100,000
Electrification – total population: 55%)
Electrification – urban areas: 88%)
Electrification – rural areas: 17% (2013)
Electricity – production: 6.61 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – consumption:5.702 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – imports: 1.414 billion kWh (2015 EST.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity: 1.545 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels: 52.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants: 46.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

Internet users: Total: 6,090,201; and Percent of population: 25.0% (July 2016 EST.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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