Overview: Burundi


Urban: 13% of total population (2018)

Population growth: 3.25% (2017 EST.)

Ethnic groups
Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official); French and other language 0.3%, Swahili; Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official); English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9%)

Roman Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.57% (male 2,628,767/female 2,596,719); 15-24 years: 19.15% (male 1,095,213/female 1,100,314); 25-54 years: 28.74% (male 1,643,319/female 1,651,679); 55-64 years: 3.92% (male 212,074/female 237,324

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 89.6; youth dependency ratio: 84.8; elderly dependency ratio: 4.7

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 71,727 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)

IDPs: 168,674 (Some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015) (2018)

Stateless persons: 974 (2017)

Area: Total: 27,830 sq km; land: 25,680 sq km; water: 2150 sq km

Irrigated land: 230 sq km (2012)

Health expenditure
7.5% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 91.1% of population; Rural: 73.8% of population; and Total: 75.9% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 8.9% of population; Rural: 26.2% of population; and Total: 24.1% of population (2015 EST.)

Education expenditure
5.4% of GDP (2013)

Literacy Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 85.6%; Male: 88.2%; and female: 83.1% (2015 EST.)

Unemployment youth ages
Total: 2.9%; Male: 4.4%; and female: 2% (2014 EST.)

Government type
Presidential republic

Administrative divisions
18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi

History: Several previous; latest ratified by referendum 28 February 2005

Amendments: Proposed by the president of the republic after consultation with the government or by absolute majority support of the membership in both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Senate membership and at least four-fifths majority vote by the National Assembly; the president can opt to submit amendment bills to a referendum; constitutional articles including those on national unity, the secularity of Burundi, its democratic form of government, and its sovereignty cannot be amended; amended 2018 (2018)

Legal system
Mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Legislative branch
Description: Bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members; 60% of seats allocated to Hutu and 40% to Tutsi; 3 seats reserved for Twas; 30% of total seats reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms


Senate – last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be held in 2019)

Election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: Prime President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections/Appointments:President directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015 (next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament; note – a 2018 constitutional referendum effective for the 2020 election, approved reinstatement of the prime minister position, reduced the number of vice presidents from 2 to 1, and increased the presidential term from 5 to 7 years with a 2-consecutive-term limit

Election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote – Pierre NKURUNZIZA

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)

Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms

Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Court Against Corruption; Commercial Court; Commerce Court

Exports commodities
Coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports partners
Democratic Republic of the Congo 25.5%, Switzerland 18.4%, UAE 14.9%, Belgium 6% (2017)

Imports commodities
Capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports partners
India 18.5%, China 13%, Kenya 7.9%, UAE 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, Uganda 6%, Tanzania 5.4%, Zambia 4.6% (2017)

Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 9,700,000
Electrification – total population: 5%)
Electrification – urban areas: 28%)
Electrification – rural areas: 2% (2013)
Electricity – production: 230 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 303.9 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity – imports: 90 million kWh (2015 EST.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity: 68,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels: 13.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants: 83.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources: 4.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

Internet users: Total: 574,236; and Percent of population: (5.2% (July 2016 EST.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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