Overview: Botswana

Population
2,214,858

Urban: 69.4% of Total population (2018)

Population growth
1.55% (2017 EST.).

Ethnic groups
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%)

Languages
Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)

Religions
Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha’i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.95% (male 357,003/female 350,657); 15-24 years: 18.91% (male 207,209/female 211,629); 25-54 years: 38.45% (male 401,082/female 450,437); 55-64 years: 5.46% (male 51,195/female 69,835); 65 years and over: 5.23% (male 50,206/female 65,605) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 55.1; youth dependency ratio: 49.3; elderly dependency ratio: 5.8; and potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons- Refugees (country of origin): NO

Area: Total: 581,730 sq km; land: 566,730 sq km; water: 15,000 sq km

Irrigated land: Unknown

Health expenditure
5.4% of GDP (2014)

Education expenditure
9.6% of GDP (2008)

Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 88.5%; Male: 88%; and female: 88.9% (2015 EST.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 36%; Male: 29.6%; and female: 43.5% (2010 EST.)

Government type
Parliamentary republic

Administrative divisions
10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*)

Constitution
History: Previous 1960 (pre-independence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Amendments: Proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure, and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)

Legal system
Mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch odel and also customary and common law

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: At least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (65 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote,

Elections:
Last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019

Election results: Percent of vote by party – BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party – BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

Head of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018)

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: President indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019);

Election results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008) stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became president

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consist of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament),

Judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70

Subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief’s Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief’s Representative Court; Chief’s Representative‚Äôs Court; Headman’s Court
Exports commodities
Diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles

Exports partners
Belgium 20.3%, India 12.6%, UAE 12.4%, South Africa 11.9%, Singapore 8.7%, Israel 7%, Hong Kong 4.1%, Namibia 4.1% (2017)

Imports commodities
Foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products

Imports partners South Africa 66.1%, Canada 8.3%, Israel 5.3% (2017)

Electricity access:

Population without electricity: 700,000
Electrification – Total population: 66%)
Electrification – urban areas: 75%)
Electrification – rural areas: 54% (2013)
Electricity – production: 2.789 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 3.722 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity – imports: 1.468 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity: 134,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels: 98.5% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels: 0% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants: 0 of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources: 1.5% of Total installed capacity (2015 est.)

Internet users: Total: 869,610; Percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 EST.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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