Overview: Algeria

Population
40,969,443 (July 2017 est.)
 
Urban: 72.6% of total population (2018)
 
Population growth
1.7% (2017 est.)
 
Ethnic groups
Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
 
Languages
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%)
 
Religions
Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)
 
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.31% (male 6,148,568/female 5,858,922); 15-24 years: 15.3% (male 3,208,185/female 3,061,179); 25-54 years: 42.93% (male 8,906,160/female 8,682,894); 55-64 years: 6.81% (male 1,410,298/female 1,378,282); 65 years and over: 5.65% (male 1,079,218/female 1,235,737) (2017 est.)
 
Dependency: total dependency ratio: 52.7; youth dependency ratio: 43.8; elderly dependency ratio: 9; and potential support ratio: 11.2 (2015 est.)
Refugees (country of origin): more than 100,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2018).
 
Area: Total: 23,811,741 sq. km; land: 23,811,741 sq. km; water: 0 sq. km
 
Irrigated land 13,600 sq km (2014)
 
Physicians density
1.19 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
 
Health expenditure
7.2% of GDP (2014)
 
Drinking water stats:
Improved: Urban: 84.3% of population; Rural: 81.8% of population; and Total: 83.6% of population
Unimproved: Urban: 15.7% of population; Rural: 18.2% of population; and Total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
 
Education expenditure
4.3% of GDP (2008)
 
Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 80.2%; Male: 87.2%; and female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
 
Unemployment youth ages: Total: 25.2%; Male: 22.1%; and female: 41.5% (2014 est.)
 
Government type
Presidential republic
 
Administrative divisions
48 provinces (wilayas, singular – wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M’Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen)
 
Constitution
History: several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989
 
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or through the president with the support of three-fourths of the members of both houses of Parliament in joint session; passage requires approval by both houses, approval by referendum, and promulgation by the president; the president can forego a referendum if the Constitutional Council determines the proposed amendment does not conflict with basic constitutional principles; articles including the republican form of government, the integrity, and unity of the country, and fundamental citizens’ liberties and rights cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
 
Legal system
Mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
 
Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
 
Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
 
Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years National People’s Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms
 
Elections: Council of the Nation – last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People’s Assembly – last held on 4 May 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
 
Election results: Council of the Nation – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NA National People’s Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – FLN 164, RND 97, MSP-FC 33, TAJ 19, Ennahda-FJD 15, FFS 14, El Mostakbel 14, MPA 13, PT 11, RCD 9, ANR 8, MEN 4, other 33, independent 28
 
Executive branch
Chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
 
Head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 16 August 2017)
 
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
 
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president after consultation with the majority party in Parliament
 
Election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote – Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%)
 
Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court Supreme, (consists of 150 judges organized into 8 chambers: Civil, Commercial and Maritime, etc.)
 
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members – 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years
 
Subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
 
Exports
Commodities petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)
 
Exports partners
Italy 17.4%, Spain 13%, France 11.9%, US 9.4%, Brazil 6.2%, Netherlands 5.5% (2017)
 
Imports commodities
Capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
 
Imports partners
China 18.2%, France 9.1%, Italy 8%, Germany 7%, Spain 6.9%, Turkey 4.4% (2017)
 
Electricity access:
Population without electricity: 400,000
Electrification – total population: 99%)
Electrification – urban areas: 100%)
Electrification – rural areas: 97% (2016)
 
Internet users: Total: 17,291,463; Percent of population: 42.9% (July 2016 est.)
 
Source: CIA World Factbook