Overview: Rwanda

Population
11,901,484 (July 2017 est.)

Urban: 17.2% of total Population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 2.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Population growth: 2.45% (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups
Hutu, Tutsi, Twa (Pygmy

Languages
Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <.1, English (official) <.1, Swahili/Kiswahili (official, used in commercial centers) <.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3%)

Religions
Protestant 49.5% (includes Adventist 11.8% and other Protestant 37.7%), Roman Catholic 43.7%, Muslim 2%, other 0.9% (includes Jehovah’s Witness), none 2.5%, unspecified 1.3% (2012 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.38% (male 2,485,386/female 2,439,101); 15-24 years: 19.34% (male 1,151,657/female 1,149,928); 25-54 years: 32.77% (male 1,845,501/female 2,054,410); 55-64 years: 4.09% (male 216,725/female 269,972); 65 years and over: 2.43% (male 113,822/female 174,982) (2017 est.)

Dependency: Total dependency ratio: 77.3; youth dependency ratio: 72.4; elderly dependency ratio: 5; and potential support ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons:-
Refugees (country of origin): 81,226 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 68,496 (Burundi) (2018)

Area: Total: 26,338 sq km; land: 24,668 sq km; water: 1,670 sq km

Irrigated land: 96 sq km (2012)

Physicians density
0.06 physicians/1,000 Population (2015)

Health expenditure
7.5% of GDP (2014)

Drinking water stats
Improved: Urban: 86.6% of population; Rural: 71.9% of population; and Total: 76.1% of population

Unimproved: Urban: 13.4% of population; Rural: 28.1% of population; and Total: 23.9% of Population (2015 est.)

Education expenditure
3.5% of GDP (2016)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 70.5%; Male: 73.2%; and female: 68% (2015 est.)

Unemployment youth ages: Total: 1.9%; Male: 1.4%; and female: 2.5% (2014 est.)

Government type
Presidential Republic

Administrative divisions
4 provinces (in French – provinces, singular – province; in Kinyarwanda – intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French – ville; in Kinyarwanda – umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)

Independence Day
1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship

Constitution
History: latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003

Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (with Council of Ministers approval) or by two-thirds majority support of both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses

Legal system
Mixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Legislative branch
Description: bicameral Parliament consists of:26 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the

Political Organizations Forum – a body of registered political parties, and 2 selected by institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms

Elections: last held on 16-18 September 2013 (next to be held on 3 September 2018

Election results: percent of vote by party – Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 76.2%, PSD 13%, PL 9.3%, other 1.5%; seats by party – Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 41, PSD 7, PL 5, 27 indirectly elected members

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000

Head of government: Prime Minister Edouard NGIRENTE (since 30 August 2017

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 98.8%, Philippe MPAYIMANA (independent) 0.7%, Frank HABINEZA (DGPR)0.5%)

Judiciary Branch
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 15 judges; normally organized into 3-judge panels); High Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 24 judges and organized into 5 chambers

Judge selection and term of office: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts

Subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts

Exports commodities
coffee, tea, hides, tin ore

Exports partners
UAE 38.3%, Kenya 15.1%, Switzerland 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.5%, US 4.9%, Singapore 4.5% (2017)

Imports commodities
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material

Imports partners
China 20.4%, Uganda 11%, India 7.2%, Kenya 7.1%, Tanzania 5.3%, UAE 5.1% (2017)

Electricity access
Population without electricity: 9,300,000
Electrification – total population: 21%)
Electrification – urban areas: 67%)
Electrification – rural areas: 5% (2013)

Internet users: Total: 3,724,678; and percent of population: 29.8% (Dec 2017 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook

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