Editorial Team

Is Kenya more generous than Australia?

Are wealthy countries more generous? Should wealthy countries be more generous? Do religious populations give more? As at 2017, Australia had a population of 25 million people, 7.7 million square kilometres of land of which only 0.8 million square kilometres of land was habitable (10%), 25,760 kilometres of coastline and 25,460 square kilometres of irrigated …

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Papyri: Paving The Path To Innovation

Papyrus, from which the English word “paper” is derived, is the writing material of ancient times. The name comes from the aquatic plant Cyperus papyrus, also known as paper plant. This plant was indigenous of the Nile delta region in Egypt and it was collected mainly for its stalks. The central pith of those stalks …

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Kingdom of Zimbabwe (1220-1450 AD)

The word Zimbabwe loosely translated to ‘House of Rock’. It is a severely anglicized version of the Shona words dzimba dza mabwe, meaning great stone houses or dzimba woye, meaning esteemed houses. The Shona people were the original inhabitants of the Zimbabwe plateau. These people settled in this area and slowly developed a society of …

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THE GEDI RUINS – RuNNing Water in the 14th Century – Gedi, Kenya

Ruins of Gedi Although certain African kingdoms like Axum, north of the Swahili city states, already had evidence of trading relationships with the Eastern Roman Empire, North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, India and Sri Lanka during 100 AD through to 900 AD, other African port cities would later develop evidence of trading with India, Sri …

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Cosmas Indicopleustes,From A Simple Merchant To An Intellectual Voyager

It’s the first half of the sixth century, the beginning of the middle ages, the time when the silk trade was growing between the Byzantine Empire and China, the time when the Anno Domini system was created which the Gregorian calendar is based upon, the time when the first reference in history to the use …

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The Mossi Kingdoms

The Mossi kingdoms were a group of twenty states and kingdoms in Africa that lasted from around the 11th century to the 19th century. It was surrounded by the Mali Empire to the West and the kingdom of Songhai to the North. Despite long-standing battles within the Mossi kingdom and with the stronger Songhai & Mali kingdoms, the Mossi states largely retained their independence until the arrival of the French upon its shores in 1896. Uniquely the Mossi kingdoms did not majorly participate in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. The Mossi had similar concepts to Europe (for instance to the United Kingdom’s Prince of Wales title). The sons of the ruler were given provincial responsibilities as Dimas. There were positions among noblemen for Commerce, the Military and Industry.